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Venous Congestion and Stasis

Venous congestion is the dilation of veins and capillaries due to impaired venous drainage which results in passive hyperaemia or venous congestion, commonly referred to as congestion. Congestion may be acute or chronic, the later being more common and called chronic venous congestion (CVC). The affected tissue or organ is bluish in color (cyanosis) due to red cell stasis and accumulation of deoxygenated hemoglobin.

It is of 2 types:

a) Local venous congestion due to obstruction and subsequent reduced venous outflow from an organ or part of body, e.g. portal venous obstruction in cirrhosis of liver.

b) Systemic (general) venous congestion is engorgement of systemic veins, eg.in left-sided and right-sided heart failure and lung diseases (such as pulmonary fibrosis) which interfere with pulmonary blood flow.

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