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Spleen Disorder

Splenic diseases include splenomegaly, where the spleen is enlarged for various reasons. On the other hand, a lack of normal spleen function is called asplenia.
Enlargement of the spleen is known as Splenomegaly. It may be caused by Sickle cell anemia, Sarcoidosis, Malaria, Bacterial endocarditis, Leukemia, Pernicious anemia, Gaucher's disease, Leishmaniasis, Hodgkin's disease, Banti's syndrome, hereditary Spherocytosis, Cyst, glandular fever, Infectious mononucleosis or 'Mono' caused by the Epstein-Barr Virus, and Tumour. Primary tumors of the spleen include Hemangioma and Hemangiosarcoma. Marked splenomegaly may result in the spleen occupying a large portion of the left side of the abdomen.
Asplenia is the absence of normal spleen function. It predisposes to some septicemia infections. Therefore, vaccination and antibiotic measures are essential in such cases. There are multiple causes:

  • Some people congenitally completely lack a spleen, although this is rare.
  • Sickle-cell disease can cause a functional asplenia (or autosplenectomy) by causing infarctions of the spleen during repeated sickle-cell crises.
  • It may be removed surgically (known as a splenectomy), but this is rarely performed, as it carries a high risk of infection and other adverse effects. Indications include following abdominal injuries with rupture and hemorrhage of the spleen, or in the treatment of certain blood diseases, certain forms of lymphoma or for the removal of splenic tumors or cysts.

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