is an outdated scientific term which is, however, still widely known and commonly used.

is considered the correct term today, as it refers to an inflammatory disease of the periodontium caused by bacteria. Periodontium refers to the specialized tissues that support the teeth, and is made up by: alveolar bone, periodontal ligament, cementum overlaying the root and gingival or gums.

This disease starts as an inflammation of the gums caused by bacterial plaque, tartar, tooth decay, food residues, smoking, diabetes, hormonal causes, unsuitable prosthesis. If left untreated, bacterial toxins destroy the junctional epithelium connecting gums to the neck of tooth. Once the seal is broken, bacteria penetrate deeply into the tissues, where they can act undisturbed and start a slow but gradual destruction of the periodontium.

The main symptoms of this disease include the following: bleeding during brushing, bad breath (halitosis), redness and recession of gums, sore gums when applying pressure or percussion, gingival pockets and small periodontal abscess.

The later stages of pyorrhoea are characterized by serious dental looseness and purulent blood coming out of periodontal pockets. Although the term pyorrhoea of Greek origin - is used, a more suitable definition is Expulsive Periodontitis

The causes of this disease are the same as gingivitis: there are several connected causes, among which genetic predisposition and bacterial plaque. The various bacterial groups were studied and related to the features of more or less severe versions of the disease.

Occlusal trauma was considered as significant, even though the actual causes and process of its onset have never been ascertained. It is difficult to find occurrences of trauma in functional activities such as: speaking, chewing and swallowing.

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